The Times Computer Crosswords
featuring The Times Jubilee Puzzles 1932-1987
by Akom Ltd under licence to Times Newspapers Ltd
It is fitting that 58 years after the launch of the first Times Crossword, under the guidance and expertise of Adrian Bell and Ronald Carton, through the innovations of The Times Jumbo Crosswords and The Times National Crossword Championships in the 60's, 70's and early 80's under the worthy stewardship of my father, Edmund Akenhead, that we should now, thanks, in large measure, to the vision of the present crossword editor, John Grant, be celebrating the launch of yet another first and, indeed, a new dimension in crosswords - the first volumes of THE TIMES COMPUTER CROSSWORDS. Perhaps, it can be claimed that the crossword as an international institution has finally come of age.
By Edmund Akenhead, Editor of The Times Crossword 1965-1983
The Times Crossword first appeared in 1930. This collection of 56 puzzles was made by choosing one puzzle from each year from 1932 to 1987 inclusive, thus tracing the development of the crossword from early days to modern times. The main difference between the earlier and more moden puzles lies in the frequent absence in earlier clues of a definition of the answer. It will be seen that earlier clues simply indicate anagrams by adding (anag.), while modern clues use some form of words in the clue to point to an anagram. Direct quotation clues are less frequent nowadays than they used to be, while single-word-definition clues have virtually disappeared. The puzzle for 1936 is unusual, considering entirely of quotations, and that for 1978 is an example of the once-a-year Crossword Eliminator Puzzle, designed to baffle all but the experts. The puzzle for 1980, by the late Adrian Bell, composer of Times Crossword No. 1, celebrates the Golden Jubilee of The Times Crossword, the theme of the puzzle being gold.
Introduction to Cryptic Crosswords
By Edmund Akenhead, Former Editor of The Times Crosswords
The devices used by a cryptic crossword compiler are so many and varied that an introduction such as this can only give the beginner a glimpse of them. Experience will prove the best teacher, but I hope that the following tips will help the beginner in his first steps towards mastering The Times (and similar) crosswords.
The best known device is the anagram. "Terribly angered" is a definition of the answer "enraged", which is also an anagram of "angered", the word "Terribly" being used in the clue as an anagram indicator. The solver should always be on the look-out for words suggesting arrangement, change, wrongness, confusion, strangeness and the like which may point to anagrams in the clue: "new" is sometimes used, also "sort" and "out" (in the sense of "wrong"), while "perhaps", "maybe" and "possibly" will probably indicate anagrams. Then there are words which have different meanings: "refuse" in a clue may appear to be a verb meaning "decline", but it may really mean the noun meaning "rubbish": "tent" may mean not a canvas shelter, but a Spanish wine: "saw" or "gnome" may mean a maxim. Solving crosswords certainly helps to enlarge one's vocabulary. All sorts of words have hidden meanings in crosswords with "do" clued as a party, "letter" as a landlord, "number" as an anaesthetic (that which numbs) and so ad infinitum, the oldest chestnut being "flower" as a river, while "sewer" may mean a sempstress and "cover for a sewer" will mean not a manhole but a thimble, and "tour de France" means not a cycle race but the Eiffel Tower.
Many a crossword answer is made up of other words indicated by the clue. "Loudly disapprove royal skating display? Some reservations here (7-5)" is solved by joining up Boo-king off-ice, while Mild-red is well known as a girl with slightly communist sympathies. A word may consist of one word containing another (En), and there are many other ways in which words (including abbreviations) may be combined either in their normal, or in anagrammatic or reversed forms to make the answer. In such "build-ups" the word "river" may well refer to one of the compiler's favourite British waterways - Dee, Exe, Fal or Ure (tributary of the Yorkshire Ouse).
Solvers should be familiar with many common abbreviations, such as e.g., i.e., the points of the compass N, S, E, W. (Sometimes clued as bridge players), musical notes A to G (or doh, re, mi, etc) and Roman numerals "MCClessCC" and anyone interested in cricket will know that the M in MCC stands for Marlebone. Chemical abbreviations for elements are sometimes used such as "au" (gold), "ag" (silver), "fe" (iron) etcetera. The letter L could be clued as money (pound sign), 50, lake, or as student, tyro, novice or learner (driver with L plates). Solvers are also expected to know simple words in the more familiar foreign languages, particularly the articles, e.g. el (clued as "the Spanish"), un ("a French") etc.
Finally, to mention four other types of clue: (a) Hidden answer clue (Cs) "Something more in the next race (5)", here the answer "extra" appears in consecutive letters in the clue ("next race"). (b) Straight quotation, requiring the solver to supply the missing word or words (nothing cryptic about this type of clue). (c) "Sound" clues (Sd) with sound-indicators such as "say", "we hear", "it's said", or "sound" telling the solver to look to the sound of the words used. "Some measure of spirit? I say! (5)" gives the answer "optic" (optic measures used in bars). "Say" in the clue tells the solver to look to the sound of "I", that is "eye". (d) The acronym (Ac), or word made from the initial letters of other words.
An ounce of practical demonstration being worth a pound of theory, I set out below explanations of every clue in the first puzzle in this collection. Some may wish to try the puzzle first without this "crib".
The 1978 Times Crossword Championship Eliminator Puzzle
1A Poetic medium to admire? Not to notice (6)
Browing's "Mr Sludge, the Medium". 'To admire' less 'to ad' leaves mire defining sludge
'Poor Crompton' indicates an anagram of RICHMAL (Crompton, authoress of the William books) taken in by TIO (Spanish for Uncle)
27A Many a steed 'as pussy's so-called master (7)
C ('Many'=100=C) ARAB (steed) plus AS gives CARABAS. Puss In Boots' owner, represented as the Marquis of CARABAS
28A From Rome there enters a man, back in Africa (7)
IBI (Latin for 'there') in A MAN reversed gives NAMIBIA
29A Last of the girls named as story-teller (8)
'Last of the girls' gives RLS the initials of Robert Louis Stevenson, alias TUSITALA the 'story-teller' of the South Seas
30A Time and relative dimension in space vehicle. Who told you? (6)
An acronym of the first six words of the clue gives TARDIS, the 'space vehicle' in the Dr 'Who' television series
1D Language scholars put up paper - its second version (9)
TIMES ('paper') reversed ('put up') plus anagram of 'its s' ('version'). SEMITISTS are 'scholars' of Semitic languages
2D Oh, this pressure makes us cry 'Enough!' (7)
OH plus URGENCY is an anagram of CRY ENOUGH. Take out OH and find an anagram of the remaining letters (meaning 'pressure')
3D Place of PT? No, girl, mystic meditation (10)
GYM ('Place of PT') NO SOPHY ('No girl') giving GYMNOSOPHY ('mystic mediation')
5D Changed a hundred to six hundred (9)
Convert to Roman numerals to read "Changed AC (alternating current) to DC (direct current)"
6D It's no good, Pop! (4)
Two meanings here. PUNK as in 'no good' and PUNK as in Punk Rock ('Pop')
7D Stan suggesting an excursion in port? (7)
(Stan) Laurel and (Oliver) Hardy - sounds like "Trip, Ollie?" gives TRIPOLI ('port')
8D Law-man ties hook to line (5)
See the Concise Oxford Dictionary for Snell's Law and Chambers 20th Century dictionary for the hook-line connextion
9D 'X' with him making two unknown quantities (4)
'X' needs AND 'Y' to make 'two unknown quantities'
14D Carol's vexed having Mrs Knightley muscle in here (10)
'vexed' points to anagram of CAROL'S plus EMMA (Jane Austen's heroine). Chambers defines SARCOLEMMA as "the sheath of muscle fibre"
16D Fresh study about a young lady of Lima? (9)
RE ('about') PERU (capital 'Lima') SAL ('young lady')
18D Small horses? Yes, hidden in a tree (9)
AY ('Yes') in GALLOWS (as in Tyburn Tree)
20D Bottom taking in the old town's dispositions (7)
NATES ('Bottom') outside UR ('old town')
22D Son of glory? No (7)
For this name meaning "the glory is departed" see I Samuel 4:21
23D This edging is largely carnation (5)
Picot-edging, a large part of PICOTEE (a type of 'carnation')
25D Tail-less fruit bat of the jungle (4)
The name of the bat (Kipling's Jungle Book). The 'fruit' which has lost its 'tail' is the mango
26D No part of a memorial service (4)
O ('No') BIT ('Part') gives OBIT ('memorial service')
For Acorn BBC Master 128 5.25" disc (ADFS), Master Compact and Electron 3.5" disc and Archimedes 3.5" disc, insert the disc. To start the program, depress the SHIFT key and, whilst holding the SHIFT key down, press and release BREAK. Finally release the SHIFT key.
For BBC Master, Model B and Electron cassette, the main program is recorded on both sides of the tape. Type CHAIN"" (RETURN) to load. Each side of the cassette contains 28 crosswords. Side A puzzles 1932-1959 and Side B puzzles 1960-1987.
A title page will be loaded followed by the main program. It is suggested that the crosswords are attempted sequentially and after a particular crossword has been loaded that you note the position shown by your footage counter. The next time you attempt a crossword after loading the program, you can fast-forward to the recorded position, thereby decreasing the search-time required.
How to use the Program
The program has been carefully designed on four levels so as to meet the needs of all crossword solvers. Level 1, the highest level, should provide hours of hitherto unequalled competitive stimulus, whether you are of championship status, or like me, an average solver who spends the best part of a train journey at it, with occasional success.
Level 2 allows you the choice of either marking the clue or attempting the solution; whereupon correct letters appear in upper case on the grid together with incorrect letters in lower case.
For those new to cryptic crosswords, Level 3 offers a clue to the workings of the compiler's mind in the form of a convention indicator, the key to which is revealed in the glossary of terms (page 12). *An - for instance - denotes an anagram in the clue, thereby saving time and helping the solver.
Level 4 is for beginners. The first letter of the solution is printed on the grid automatically. This makes the task of solving the puzzle very much easier.
These are by no means the only stimuli available. The special marking system allows clues to be addressed any number of times. Clues may be cancelled at any stage except at Solution Entry. Previously solved clues may be re-addressed for cross reference purposes. Further, should the clue prove too baffling, the computer can solve it for you. Effectively, then, the game becomes a contest between you and the computer as to who can resolve the greatest number of clues at the highest possible level in the shortest possible time, points being awarded according to level.
I wish you hours of enjoyment!
Upon completion of the loading instructions as directed you are offered the option to include sound. Press the S key for Sound or the N key for No Sound. The screen clears and the words "Assembling crossword" appear. The name of the crossword you have chosen is 'typed' out by the computer and the crossword follows. Finally the score line, set to 0, is printed upper right.
The assembly instruction disappears, the invisible clock starts, and hereon it's up to you.
The instruction "Insert clue number" appears. Enter the clue number of your choice and pres RETURN. If there are two possible clues the plaer is prompted to specify whether "Across A or Down D", the choice being made at the press of the desired key. If the clue exists it is displayed, otherwise the text screen clears and reverts back to the earlier instruction. A number of choices are now open to you. If you don't like the look of the clue, you can return to the address position by pressing 'C', or you may proceed. The words "Help? Y/N" appear on the text screen lower right. The program will only respond to 'Y' or 'N' being pressed. If 'N' is pressed the player is asked to enter the necessary letters. If the number of letters in incorrect the instruction is repeated. Provided the solution is correct in its entirety, pressing RETURN will enter it in the grid and 50 points are accumulatedd to the player's score; conversely, the grid stays blank at no penalty, (apart from the time lost) to the player. At this level, no computer assistance is available.
If 'Y' is pressed, the program proceeds to Level 2, a marker option in the form "Marker? Y/N". The idea here is to offer the maximum degree of flexibility to the solver. Should you not like the clue, and prefer to try another instead, you may mark your clue by pressing 'Y'. An instruction follows to enter the requisite number of letters or employ chevrons - SHIFT > - to mark those parts of the solution which are unknown. Pressing the RETURN key subsequently enters the information on the grid. Should the clue be solved at this level, 40 points are awarded.
If the player pressees 'N' the computer assumes that further assistance with the existing clue is required. The program continues to Level 3, printing a convention indicator after the clue. The words "Clue 2? Y/N" appear. If 'N' is pressed the player is offered the chance of computer assistance in the form "Solution desired? Y/N". If 'N' is pressed the player may either attempt the solution or mark it as previously. No penalty is incurred, and the clue may be re-addressed as and when required. Should the player prefer to attempt the solution, correct letters will be printed in upper case and incorrect ones in lower case. Again, there is no penalty. When correct, 30 points accrue to the player's score at this level. Conversely, if 'Y' is pressed the computer solves the clue and 30 points are deducted from the player's score. The same penalty applies to the next level of play.
If further help is required Level 4 allows the first letter of the solution to be printed in the grid. A solution at this level is worth 10 points. The procedure is as for Level 3.
A clue may be cancelled at any stage except the Solution Entry stage and, for cross-reference purposes, previously solved clues may be re-addressed at any time. Should a non-existent clue number be entered the computer will alert you to your error and reset to the address position.
If you wish to stop the program you can leave it by pressing the RETURN key on its own in the address position. The words "Quit Y/M" appear on the text screen lower right. This is a failsafe device used to offset accidental pressing of the RETURN key which would otherwise terminate the puzzle. Should the puzzle be completed, a sound signal is emitted. The text screen clears to reveal an analysis of the player's performance in terms of the time taken, the number of clues solved by both player and computer, the score and an assessment of the same in the categories - 'Beginner', 'Average', 'Good', 'Very Good' and 'Expert'. The player is offered the option of viewing the entire solution, before proceeding to the final page which offers a choice between selecting a new puzzle or leaving the program. Should you decide on the latter option, and your system employs ADFS, do remember that in order to retrieve your disc facility you must switch off your computer and then switch it back on.
A puzzle can only be completed by calling up every clue and answering it satisfactorily. The program has been written in such a way that, once a clue has been attempted at a certain level, it is not possible to re-address that clue at a higher level.
The following is a list of the most common abbreviations and pointers employed in puzzles, in alphabetical order. In addition, the common abbreviations of the months and days of the week, as well as the London Postal Districts, political parties, American states, and music notes which I have not included.
A Article/Associate AB Able seaman - Sailor AC Account - Bill/Aircraftman/Alternating Current ACE One - Pilot - Expert - 1 AD Advert - Notice - Publicity/Anno Domini ADO Fuss/A Party AG Silver AI First class ALA In the style/manner of AM Morning AMP Current ANT Worker APE Monkey - Initate AU Gold/to the French AVE Welcome/Avenue AY Yes/Ever
B Blank (pencil marking)/Born/Bye/Bowled/Second grade BA Bachelor of Arts - Graduate - Degree/British Airways BC Before Christ BE Live BR British Rail/British BRA Supporter - Female supporter
C 100 (Rn)/Centigrade/Cold/Cent/Caught/Third (Grade & Row)/Circa - About/Many/Chapter CA Chartered Accuntant CAN Tin - Preserve CAT Tom CC Cricket Club/County Council CE Church (of England) CH Church/Companion of Honour CI Channel Islands CID Detectives CINC Commander in Chief CM Centimetre CO Commanding Office/Company - Firm/Care of/County COL Army Officer COLE Old King CON Study CR Credit CU Copper
D 500 (Rn)/Penny/Daughter/Died/Date/Many DA District Attorney DC Direct current DD Doctor of Divinity - Doctor - Theologian - Divine DE Of French DEN Study DER The German DO Party/Act DR Doctor/Debit DU Of the French
E East/Point/Way/Energy/Egghead/English EAR Listener ED Editor - Newsman/Edward EER Always - Ever EG For example EL The Spanish END Close - Purpose - Aim ENEMY Time EP Extended play record ER Elizabeth Regina - Queen/Hesitation ERE Before ES French art (as in 'tu es') ET Extra Terrestrial/And French ETA Estimated time of arrival EX Form - Out of - Former (Husband/Wife)
F Fahrenheit/Loud (F & FF)/Fellow/Fine FA Football Association FAG Drudge FBI G-Men - Federal Agents FC Football Club FO Foreign Office/Flying Officer FR French - Franc/Father FT Foot - Feet
G Gram - Gramme/Gravity Gateshead/Grand/German leader GB Great Britain - British GEN Information/General GG Horse GI Soldier Go Energy GMEN FBI agents GP General Practitioner - Doctor GR King - King George GRAND A lot of dollars ($1000) GRANT General (also LEE)
H Hot/Hydrogen/Hard (pencil marking)/Hospital HA Laugh HACK Lierary drudge HAL Harry HAT Bowler HB Hard black (pencil marking)
HE His/Her Excellency - Ambassador/Male
HEAD Poll/Boss HEN Bird - Layer HIC This Roman HM His/Her Majesty HO House/Home Office HP Hire purchase/Horse power HQ Headquarters HR Hour HY Henry
I One - First - First person IC In charge ICE Diamonds IE Id est (that is) IM I am IN Inch(es)/Fashionable/At home INC Incorporated INST Current month IOM Isle of Man IOU Promise to pay IQ Intelligence quotient IRA Terrorists IS Lives/Island IT Sex-Appeal
JACK Sailor - Seaman JP Justice of the Peace - Law JR Junior
K 1000 - Kilo/King - Monarch KO Knock-out
L Left/Fifty (Rn)/Pound/Latin/Learner - Novice - Beginner - Student LA Los Angeles/There in France LATE Deceased LB Pound LC Lower case LE The French (also LA) LEG Supporter LINE Railway LING Heather LIST Lean/Catalogue LO Behold - See LOW Depressed/Moo LP Long playing record LSO Longon Symphony Orchestra LT Lieutenant - Officer LTA Lawn Tennis Association
M Monsieur (Fr)/1000 (Rn)/Male/Metre/Mile/Million/Many/Motorway/Married MA Mother/Master of Arts Graduate MAC Scot MAL French complaint MASS Service/Crowd MB Doctor (Bach. of Medicine) MCC Cricket Club (Marylebone) MD Doctor (Doct. of Medicine) MI Motorway MIT Massachusetts Institute of Technology MISS Girl MN Merchant Navy MO Doctor MP Politician - Member/Military Police - Redcap(s) MPH Miles per hour MS Manuscript - Writing
N North - Point - Way - Pole/Name NATIVE Oyster NB Nota bene/No ball NCO Non-commissioned officer NE North East NI Northern Island NO Number NT New Testament/Nat. Trust NUM Miner's Union NUR Rail Union NUS Students' Union/Seamean's Union NW North West NZ New Zealand
O Nothing/Circle/Ring/Round/Love OB Old Boy OBE Decoration - Honour OK All right ON Performing OP Operation/Work OR Alternative/Gold OS Outsize - Large OT Old Testament OUT Abroad OWN Confress - Admit OZ Ounce
P Quiet/Parking/Page/Piano PA Father PAR Equal - Normal/Paragraph PAN Young Peter/Vessel
PAT Irishman/boy PC Police Constable - Bobby/Copper - Cop/Postcard
PEN Writer/Swan PER Through/Each PHD Doctor/Degree PI Page one/Pious/Letter from Greece PM Prime Minister/Afternoon PO Post Office/Postal order/Petty Officer/Pilot Officer POLL Head POP Uncle (Pawnbroker) PORT Left POT Trophy POW Prisoner of War PR Pair/Public Relations PRO In favour of/Professional PS Post Script - Afterthought PT Physical Training - Exercise/Part
R Right/King/River/Rex/Redhead/Run RA Royal Academy - Artist - Painter/Royal Artillery - Gunner RAM Royal Academy of Music/Butter (animal that butts) RAT Deserter RC Roman Catholic/Red Cross RD Road - Way - Highway RE Royal Engineers - Sappers - Soldiers/About/Again/Concerning REP Salesman REV Reverend/Revolution ROT Rubbish RM Royal Marines - Marines/Royal Mail RMA Royal Military Academy RN Royal Navy - Navy ROD Pole RT Right RU Rugby Union RUM Peculiar - Odd RY Railway
S South - Point/Way - Pole/Son/Old Bob-Shilling SA South Africa/Salvation Army SAW Cutter/Proverb SC Little Science SE South East SET Group SH Quiet - Silence SIC Thus - So SM Sergeant-major SO Thus SP Starting Price - Odds SQ Square SR Senior SRN State Registered Nurse SS Steam Ship - Vessel ST Street - Way/Saint - Good man SUB U-Boat SW South West
T West End/Sort of square/shirt/Times leader TA Territorial Army - Terriers/Thanks TAR Sailor TATE Gallery TENT Wine TIN Can TNT High explosive TOM Cat TOP Head TON Heavyweight TOR Hill - Eminence TT Teetotaller - Non-drinker - Dry/Motor cycle race TU Trade Union TUC Trades Union Congress TV Television
U You say (as in 'sound of you') - U turn/Upper (class, bracket)/Superior/Universal UAR United Arab Republic UC Upper case UK United Kingdom ULT Last month UN United Nations - International - A French UR Ancient city US United States of America
V Versus - Against/Victory/Five (Rn)/Verse VI Flying bomb (Doodlebug)/Six (Rn(/5-1 VIP Bigwig VR Victoria Regina
W West - Point - Way/Wicket WI Womens Institute/Mayfair WK Week WO War Office WM William WT Weight
X Cross/Kiss/Ten (Rn)
The following list of convention indicators and category pointers employed in the puzzles in alphabetical order: Note - There may be more than one indicator in a clue, in which case I have selected the one I consider most helpful. It should also be remembered that in cryptic clues one convention may well embrace others. To this end, I have included in square brackets the conventions with particular association.
Ab Abbreviation(s) [Re, Du, Po, En] Ac Acronym - initials forming word(s) Af African term or reference Ai Artist, Sculptor, Architect and associated movements Am American term or reference An Anagram in clue [Ab, Po, Re, En] Ar Archaic [Po. Ab, Do] As Association of words or ideas [Po. Ab, Do] At Autonym Au Australian term or reference
Ba Ballet [Th, Ch, Li] Bi Biblical reference [Do]
Cd Cryptic definition (Alternative interpretation to the obvious) Ch Character [definition] [Li, Sh] Ci Cinema Cl Clue within clue [Ab, Po, Re, As] Cn Conundrum or riddle [Du, Do, Po, Lo] Co Contracted form - e.g. LANCS [Ab] Cr Composer [Mu] Cs Concealed solution in clue [Re, Po] Cy Chemistry [Er]
De Definition [As, Do] Dm Disguised meaning [Po, Ab] Do Double meaning (or homonym) Dr Dramatist/Drama [Li, Th] Du Word division (Two or more words or letters forming single word) [Ab, Po]
Eg Reference to Egypt En Envelope (word containing another) [Ab, An, Re, Po] Er Engineering/Science [Ma, Ps]
Ev Event [Hi]
Fa Familiar term or saying [Sl, Vu] Fe Festival - religious or other
Fl Flora Fr French, Franglais or France [Po, Ab] Ft Fairy tale or legend [My, Li, Nr]
Ge Reference to German or Germany Gk Reference to Greek or Greece [My, Lo] Gr Grammatical term or reference Gy Geographical term or feature
Hi Historical reference
Id Idiom [Fa, Sl] Ir Reference to Ireland or Irish It Reference to Italian or Italy [Po, Ab]
Kn General Knowledge
La Latin [Rn, Ro, Po, Ab, Le, My] Le Legal terminology [La] Li Literary reference [Ch, Sh] Lo Logic [Gk]
Ma Mathematics [Ps, Er, Lo] Me Medicine Mu Musical reference [Op, Ba] My Greek and Roman mythology including the deities
Na Nautical term or reference Ne News media/journalism Nr Nursery Rhyme or association [So, Sa, Li, Ft]
Op Opera [Th, Ch, Li] Or Oriental reference or term
Pa Palindrome (Reads both ways - e.g. NOON) [Po, Ab] Pe Reference to a person [Li] Ph Partially hidden solution Pl Place name
Pm Parliamentary term or ref. Po Pointer(s) [Ab, Re, En, Du] Pr Proverb [Sa] Ps Philosophy/Philosopher [Ma, My, Lo] Pt Poet [Li, Wr, Dr] Pu Pun [Do, Du, Po, Sd]
Qu Quotation [Li, Sh]
Ra Radio Re Contains reversal [Ab, Po, An, En, Du] Ri River Ro Ancient Rome [La, Rn] Rn Roman numeral(s) [La, Ro, Po, Ab] Ru Reference to Soviet Union
Sa Saying or proverb [Nr, So] Sc Scotland or Scottish Sd Sound (depending on) [Pu] Sg Surgery (removal or replacement of parts of one word to form another) Sh Shakespearian reference [Li, Ch, Th] Si Sign [Po, Ab] Sk Scandinavian Sl Slang [Po, Ab] So Song [Nr] Sp Reference to Spanish or Spain [Po, Re, Ab] St Sporting reference Sy Synonym
Te Popular term [Fa, As] Th Theatre [Ch, Li, Ba, Op] Tv Television
Vu Vulgar [Sl, Fa]
We Reference to Wales or Welsh Wi Witticism Wr Writer/author [Li, Pt, Dr]
Copyright (C) Times Newspapers Ltd 1988
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